Main Article Content
Diabetes mellitus and obesity are very common health problems. These metabolic diseases have become a global health problem all over the world and have begun to increase rapidly in all ages, starting with childhood and adolescence in many countries. Until today, the desired success has not been achieved with calorie restriction and medical treatment. Recent studies have provided new targets for understanding the biochemical pathways involved in the development of obesity and diabetes. Recent evidence has also shown that intestinal microbiota plays a potential new role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Specifi c metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA), bile acid and bioactive lipids of the intestinal microbiota contribute to the regulation of incretin hormone secretion by activating receptors that are expressed on enteroendocrine L cells. These incretin hormone peptides affect a wide spectrum of organs and tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract, brain, fat tissue and liver. Understanding the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases has led to new therapeutic options such as prebiotics, probiotics and fecal transplantation. Intestinal microbiata modifi cation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of obesity and diabetes or the reversal of the process.