Main Article Content
Our microbiota is one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of antibiotics, primarily beta-lactam antibiotics, is one of the main factors affecting the microbiotic composition. Factors that cause microbiotic changes with antibiotics are not just chemical structures of antibiotics. The duration of treatment, dose, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects, as well as the level of resistance of each microbiota member affect the extent of these changes. Studies have shown that microbial bacteria may be vulnerable or resistant to different antibiotics. Therefore, different effects of antibiotic interventions in terms of microbial composition, metabolism have been observed. Antibiotics are used on a large scale worldwide, and antibiotic prescriptions are increasing. However, the effects on microbiota have been shown with limited studies. This article presents a review of antibiotics or antibiotic combinations in relation to changes in the microbiota composition and their molecular agents (genes, proteins, and metabolites), primarily the bowel.