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Findings of the studies on the effect of the healthy microbiota development have a lot of implication for future healthy life in children. Many non-communicable diseases, such as asthma, diabetes, obesite, have a close relationship with a damaged or underdeveloped gut microbiota. Human milk is a source of huge non-pathogenic bacterial community which is transferred to infant for establishing a healthy gut microbiota. Nevertheless, the source of these breast milk’s microbes is still controversial. An explanative theory, which is called “entero-mammary pathway”, needs more research to be proven. According to this theory, gut microbiota of the mother is transferred to the mammary ducts by means of dendritic cells. Being the most important probiotic for newborn with diverse microbial system, breast milk is also an important prebiotic for infant gut microbiota containing oligosaccharides specifi cally preferred by Bifi do bacteria. As a conclusion, breast milk is critical for establishment of healthy gut microbiota particularly during the fi rst months of life. Progressing the policies to improve breastfeeding rates in our country is strongly recommended.