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Recent developments in the fi eld of metagenomics (study of the total DNA that can be extracted from an environment) have not only changed our understanding of entire living world but also our view on our bodie’s cellular composition and the role of the immune system in health and disease. We now know that our life depend on mutualistic partnerships (symbiosis) with the microbial communities that colonize in our bodies (called microbiota- the collective microbial community inhabiting a specifi c environment). As a host, we learn to recognize, restrain our mikcrobiota which we encounter before and after birth. Microbiome (which is the collective genomic content of a microbiota such as bacteria, fungi, and other single-celled microorganisms) infl uences our functions and behaviors. The composition and function of microbiomes are critical for animals and plants- thus, each considered as single ecological unit now called holobiont. The holobiont (the host and the microbiota) use tools shaped by millions of years of co-evolution to maintain a constant dialog and a mutualistic relationship. Under normal conditions, the commensal microbiota protects against colonization by pathogens. However, as with any relationship, things can go wrong. Small imbalances introduced by the host (the immune system), or ever mutating microbes can disturb the dynamic equilibrium between host and commensals. In such circumstances (called dysbiosis), microbiota can exert pathological effects that lead to infl ammatory diseases, obesity, diabetes etc. Althought anatomical sites of a host other than the gut are also colonized by unique microbiota, in this short review, I will focus on the interactions of gut mictobiota and the host immune response in health and diseaseri artacaktır. 2020 ve sonrasına yönelik Malezya’da sağlık reformu yapılması ile ilintili baskılar artmaktadır.