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Human microbiology represents a highly complex ecosystem that is closely linked to our development, physiology and health. Microbiomas begin to occur at birth, co-develop with the host, and are greatly infl uenced by diet and other environmental factors. Our increased capacity to generate multiple channels of omic data from this system, brought about by recent advances in high throughput molecular technologies, calls for the development of systems-level methods and models that take into account not only the composition of genes and species in a microbiome but also the interactions between these components. It is known that a person lives with at least 10 times more bacteria than the number of his own cells on his body, and the majority of these bacteria are found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Throughout the history of microbiology, most human studies have concentrated on human disease-causing organisms, and fewer studies have examined the benefi ts of fl ora bacteria. The objectives of the Human Microbial Project (HMP) fi nanced for biomedical research are: exploiting new and highly effi cient technologies to fully characterize human microbiology by examining samples from different body parts from at least 250 “normal” volunteers; examining several different medical conditions to determine whether there is a relationship between microbiomic changes and health/disease; and provide standard data sources and new technological approaches to enable these studies in detail in the scientifi c mosque. The ultimate goal of HMP is to demonstrate opportunities to improve human health through the monitoring or manipulation of human microbiology. Studies suggest that these microorganism communities are more effective than expected on human health.